In New York, the elements of conversion are “(1) intent, (2) interference ‘to the exclusion of the owner’s rights,’ and (3) possession, or the right to possession in plaintiff.” 2 Leon C. Lazer, et al., New York Pattern Jury Instructions – Civil § 3.1 (2d ed. 2006) (quotingEmployers’ Fire Ins. Co. v. Cotten, 245 N.Y. 102, 156 N.E. 629 (N.Y. 1927)); see Meese v. Miller, 79 A.D.2d 237, 436 N.Y.S.2d 496, 500 (4th Dep’t 1981).
Further, in New York, a negotiable instrument (such as certain drafts, bills of exchange, checks, certificates of deposit, and notes) is converted when (i) “a drawee to whom it is delivered for acceptance refuses to return it on demand,” (ii) “any person to whom it is delivered for payment refuses on demand either to pay or to return it,” or (iii) “it is paid on a forged indorsement.” N.Y. U.C.C. § 3-419(1), 3-419(1)(a) – 3-419(1)(c); see N.Y. U.C.C. § 3-102(1)(e); id. § 3-104 (defining “negotiable instrument”).
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About the Author David S. Rich is the founding member of the Law Offices of David S. Rich, LLC,
a New York Employment and Business Litigation Law Firm, in New
York City and in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey...Read more